1. In addition to reproduction, response to stimuli, and complexity of organization, what are four other characteristics of life:
2. According to current evidence, what are the approximate dates associated with the following events:
age of the earth______________;
earliest evidence of photosynthesis ____________;
divergence of prokaryotes and eukaryotes ____________;
abundant free oxygen in the
eukaryotes well established ___________;
development of ozone layer and establishment of terrestrial multicellular organisms ___________;
humans and agriculture (two different dates) _________________________.
3. The early earth atmosphere, before the ozone layer, is believed to have been comprised of three inorganic molecules. According to the hypothesis of chemical evolution of life on earth, these three inorganic molecules would have been sufficient for the early formation of organic molecules. Name the three inorganic molecules that are believed to have comprised the earliest earth atmosphere: ________________, ________________, __________________.
4. What are the main three inorganic molecules that comprise the present earth atmosphere? List the three molecules and give their respective percentages in the present earth atmosphere:
______________________, ____________________, ____________________.
5. The work of four scientists in particular is usually cited in support of the hypothesis of chemical evolution of life on earth. Name the scientists in chronological order of their contributions, and write a phrase or sentence that characterizes the work of each scientist.
a. __________ _________________________________________________________
b. __________ _________________________________________________________
c. __________ _________________________________________________________
d. __________ _________________________________________________________
6. Briefly state what is the evidence that meteors and comets might have been the source of chemical precursors to life on earth.
7. List in order the principal aspects of the scientific method: ___________________________,
_____________________________, __________________________, ____________________.
8. List the three domains in which life on earth is classified: _____________, ______________,
9. List the six kingdoms of life on earth, two of them prokaryotic and four eukaryotic:
____________, ____________, ___________, ____________,____________, _____________
10. What characters distinguish prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Two of the characters will help fill in the blanks below:
Organisms with no nucleus or cell organelles _____________________
Organisms with a nucleus and cell organelles ______________________
11. Fill in the blanks: Photoautotrophic organisms ____________________; organisms that
derive their nutrition from other living organisms __________________; organisms that
live together, perhaps sharing nutrition ___________________.
12. Fill in the blanks with fields of botanical study; the study of fungi ____________; the classification of organisms ____________; the study of the cell ___________; the study of organisms in relationship to their environments ___________; the study of form and shape _____________; the study of heredity ____________; the study of pollen _______________.
13. Relating to historical studies of the eukaryotic cell, associate names and dates with the following: first to publish the term cell ____________________; first practical microscope _______________________; developed the "cell theory"___________________________;
documented that cells arise only from pre-existing cells ___________________________;
14. Fill in the blank with characteristic structure or function (or both) of the following cell structures or cell organelles:
primary cell wall _____________________________________________________________
plasma membrane ____________________________________________________________
Golgi body __________________________________________________________________
rough endoplasmic reticulum ____________________________________________________
smooth endoplasmic reticulum ___________________________________________________
middle lamella ________________________________________________________________
secondary cell wall ____________________________________________________________
15. What are the four classes of plant primary compounds or metabolites: _______________,
____________________, ___________________, ______________________.
16. Give at least one example of a monosacccharide _________________________________
17. Give at least one example of a disaccharide _____________________________________
18. Give two examples of polysaccharides _________________________________________
19. Name the two component molecules of lipids ___________________________________
20. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids _______________
21. What are the two major components of cell membranes __________________________.
22. Where on a plant should one expect to find cutin, suberin, or waxes _________________ ________________________________________________________________.
23. What kind of molecules make up proteins ____________________, and how many different types of them are present in all proteins _________________.
24. What is a peptide bond ___________________________________________________.
25. What is a polypeptide ____________________________________________________.
26. Characterize primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of proteins
27. What is an enzyme ________________________________________________________.
28. What is the name of the enzyme that breaks down starch __________________.
29. Characterize the structure of DNA with respect to (a) the whole molecule __________
___________________________________________, and (b) base pairing _____________
30. Characterize the structure of RNA with respect to (a) the whole molecule __________
___________________________________________, and (b) the one base that is present in RNA but not in DNA _________________.
31. What are the three molecular components of a nucleotide ________________________,
_______________________, and _______________________.
32. In DNA and RNA the nitrogenous bases are chemically bonded to the ______________
molecules of the nucleotide.
33. What is ATP ______________________________________________________________,
and what is its significance in the cell _____________________________________________.
34. List the three major classes of secondary plant compounds, and give at least one example of each __________________________________, __________________________________,
35. A plant cell type that has only a primary cell wall and is living and physiologically active at maturity is a _____________________ cell, and another cell type that has a thick secondary wall and is dead at maturity is a ______________________ cell.
36. The plastid is a specific type of cell organelle in plants. Name the three types of plastids that are recognized: the green ones___________________, the yellow, orange, or red ones_____________________, and the colorless ones ______________________.
37. Photosynthesis is the major function of (which kind of plastid) ______________________.
38. Starch accumulation and storage is the major function of _______________________.
39. Pigments are molecules that reflect certain spectra of light and thus appear as certain colors. Plant pigments can be organized into two categories: membrane-bound pigments (those that are part of the structure of membranes), and water soluble pigments (those that are dissolved in water, usually in the cell vacuole). Chlorophylls and carotenoids are membrane-bound pigments. Anthocyanins and betacyanins are water soluble pigments. Match colors with pigments: green ____________________; yellows (rarely red) ____________________, red, blue, purple, etc. ___________________________.
40. Which plant pigment is the same as pro-vitamin A (converted to vitamin A in animals)
41. The substance of secondary walls that accounts for the woodiness of wood is ___________.
42. An enzyme that breaks down the middle lamella is ___________________.
43. Name the plant product that is associated with the texture of jams and jellies _____________.
44. What is the most abundant organic molecule in the world __________________.
45. What is the function of primary pit fields and plasmodesmata in primary walls, and simple and bordered pits in secondary walls ______________________________________________.
46. What are the stages of the cell cycle __________________________________.
47. Define (in a few words) mitosis ___________________________, and cytokinesis ________________________.
48. Distinguish the following stages of mitosis: prophase ______________________________
anaphase ____________________________________________; telophase _______________ ________________________________________________.
49. What is a chromosome ______________________________________________________.
50. What is a diploid (2n) ______________________________ and haploid (n) ___________
____________________ number of chromosomes.
51. What is the diploid chromosome number of the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
52. What is the basic structure of a chromosome ____________________________________
53. The intracellular manufacture of proteins is called protein synthesis. Protein synthesis is a dynamic process that involves several parts of the cell and several cell structures and molecules. Understand the structure and role of each of the following: DNA, gene, mRNA, tRNA, amino acids, codon, anticodon, ribosomes, RER, protein ___________________________________
(use the back of any page if necessary).
54. Answer the following questions about protein synthesis: Where does protein synthesis occur_________________________________. What is the significance of protein synthesis ____________________________________________________________. How does nuclear genetic information effect protein synthesis in the cytoplasm, when the nuclear genetic information remains in the nucleus _____________________________________________. What are all the components involved in protein synthesis __________________________
_____________________________________________________________________ (see 53).
55. Define transcription _______________________________________________________.
56. Define translation__________________________________________________________
57. Define the following (on the back or on separate paper): solution, solute, solvent, colloid, sol, gel, kinetic energy, Brownian motion, diffusion, osmosis, osmotic gradient, effect of concentration, temperature, and pressure on osmosis, selective membrane permeability, absorption, adsorption, imbibition, turgor, plasmolysis.
58. Understand transport across membranes: Passive transport (simple diffusion through channel proteins; facilitated diffusion by carrier proteins); active transport (ATP and protein "pumps" move molecules against concentration gradients); uniport, symport, and antiport movement of solutes; vesicle-mediated transport (receptor mediated endocytosis).