1. From a human point of view, it can be said that every molecule of molecular oxygen (O2) used in respiration and every carbon atom in the body, at one time passed through a chloroplast. What is the only source of synthesis of organic compounds necessary for all life __________________?
2. What is the source of most of the O2 (ca. 21%) that is present in the earth atmosphere today ______________________?
3. What basic information about photosynthesis was demonstrated through the early (ca. 300 years ago) willow tree experiment by van Helmont ___________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________
4. Leaf anatomy, as seen in cross-section: For each anatomical structure note two things: relative location in the leaf; function. stomata ______________________; ______________________.
cuticle _______________________________; ______________________________________.
upper epidermis __________________________; ___________________________________.
lower epidermis __________________________; ___________________________________.
palisade mesophyll __________________________; _________________________________.
spongy mesophyll ___________________________; _________________________________.
vascular bundle ____________________________; __________________________________.
bundle sheath _____________________________; __________________________________.
xylem ___________________________________; ___________________________________.
phloem _________________________________; ____________________________________.
guard cells _______________________________; ___________________________________.
5. The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is usable to living cells is a short definition for ___________________________.
6. Consider the balanced equation for photosynthesis and list: (1) the two "raw materials" ___________________; ___________________; and (2) the three "end products" _______________________;______________________;_____________________.
7. In what cell organelle does photosynthesis occur ____________________________?
8. Where specifically in the chloroplast does the light reaction of photosynthesis occur (circle the correct answer); grana (grana thylakoids), stroma.
9. Where specifically in the chloroplast does the dark reaction of photosynthesis occur (circle the correct answer); grana, stroma.
10. Two overall groups of reactions comprise the process of photosynthesis. These reactions recognized collectively as the light reaction and the dark reaction. List the three important products of the light reaction; _______________, ________________, ________________.
List the two products of the light reaction that are required for the dark reaction; ____________,
11. The phrase "CO2 fixation" is descriptive of the ______________________________.
12. Circle the correct answer: Usually stomata are open during the; day, night. The light reaction occurs during the; day, night. Usually the dark reaction occurs during; day, night.
13. Circle the correct answer: The source of most CO2 used in photosynthesis is; from the atmosphere outside the leaf, from cells inside the leaf.
14. The pigment that absorbs the light energy that is used in photosynthesis is _______________.
15. The two spectra of light that are absorbed by chlorophyll are ________________________.
16. Circle the correct answer. A major component of the structure of photosystems I and II is (A) carbon dioxide (B) electrons (C) chlorophylls (D) photons (E) palisade mesophyll
17. In the Calvin Cycle, the first product of CO2 fixation (CO2 combining with ribose) is (A) glucose (B) molecular oxygen (C) Rubisco (D) PEPase (E) phosphoglycerate
18. What is the organic end product of the Calvin Cycle _____________________________?
19. Name at least two reasons why C4 photosynthesis is more efficient than C3 photosynthesis
20. Name at least two characteristics of CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) _____________
21. What kind of photosynthesis is associated with PEPase, initial CO2 fixation with pyruvate to form the 4-carbon oxaloacetate, achlorophyllous mesophyll, chlorophyllous bundle sheath ______
22. What kind of photosynthesis is associated with Rubisco, initial CO2 fixation with ribose to form 3-carbon pyruvate, chlorophyllous mesophyll, achlorophyllous bundle sheath ___________
23. C4 photosynthesis involves (A) the Hatch-Slack pathway (B) the light reaction (C) the Calvin Cycle (D) PEPase (E) A, B, C, D
24. Circle the two factors that would be expected to have the greatest influence on the rate of photosynthesis (A) water supply (B) temperature (C) CO2 concentration (D) light intensity
25. In what cell organelle does aerobic respiration occur ___________________________?
26. List the three kinds of respiration that are recognized to occur among organisms of the world
_________________________, ________________________, ________________________.
27. The type of respiration that utilizes molecular oxygen is (A) fermentation (B) aerobic (C) anaerobic (D) both A and C (E) both B and C
28. Consider the equation for aerobic respiration and note the two "raw materials" of the process __________________________, and three "end products" of the process ___________________
29. Name the following process: The oxidation of glucose through a series of enzymatically controlled reactions, resulting in two molecules of pyruvate and a net gain to two ATP’s ________________________ .
30. Which type of respiration produces the most energy _____________________; which type of respiration produces the least energy _______________________?
31. The process that immediately precedes all three types of respiration is (A) fermentation (B ) mitosis (C) glycolysis (D) photorespiration (E) the Hatch-Slack pathway.
32. For each type of respiration, associate the following criteria: (1) in what type of organisms does the respiration process occur; (2) with what does hydrogen (H) combine; (3) what are the end products; and (4) how much energy is produced? In order for fermentation to occur, with what must H combine __________________________________?
33. Where precisely in the mitochondrion does the Krebs Citric Acid Cycle occur ____________; where precisely does the electron transport system (ETS) occur __________________?
34. The first molecule produced in the Krebs Cycle is (A) oxaloacetate (B) pyruvate (C) citrate (D) glucose (E) malate
35. The last molecule produced in the Krebs Cycle, and the molecule with which acetyl CoA combines to begin the process, is ________________________.
36. In aerobic respiration, where precisely is CO2 evolved _______________________; where precisely is O2 used ____________________________; where are most of the "loaded" NAD molecules evolved _______________________; from what part of the process are most of the ATP’s evolved ________________________; where precisely is water evolved_____________?
37. In yeast, alcoholic fermentation results in the production of (A) ethyl alcohol (B) lactic acid (C) pyruvic acid (D) oxaloacetate (E) glucose
38. Write a brief definition of meiosis ______________________________________________.
39. What is the major biological significance of meiosis ________________________________?
40. There are two overall phases of meiosis; which phase is most like mitosis _______________.
41. The most significant genetic events occur in which phase of meiosis_________________.
42. Both synapsis and crossing-over occur in which specific stage of meiosis?________________.
43. The biological mechanism whereby a diploid nucleus is reduced to a haploid nucleus (in the ultimate formation of gametes) is (A) sexual fusion (B) mitosis (C) meiosis (D) respiration (E) photosynthesis
44. Correlate the following statements with a stage of meiosis: segregation of homologous chromosomes to opposite poles _____________________; orientation of bivalents at the cell equator ______________________.
45. Who is regarded as the originator of the field of genetics (the "Father of Genetics") ___________________, and when was his seminal work published ______________?
46. What is the genetic term for the expressed or apparent characters of an organism ____________________; what is the term for the actual genetic constitution of an organism ____________________; what is the term for a gene that "dominates" the expression of another gene____________________; what is the term for a gene that can not be expressed if it is dominated by another gene _______________________?
47. The term allele is applied to a pair of genes, with each one of the pair occurring at the same site on homologous chromosomes, and each gene relating to the same character. Can an allele be homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, or heterozygous: Yes or No
48. Only a single pair of alleles is considered in a monohybrid cross; two pairs of alleles are considered in a dihybrid cross; what kind of cross is illustrated by the following example: Aa X Aa _______________________. How about RRYY X rryy ________________________.
49. What crossing terminology is applied when the effects of two genes counterbalance each other______________________________?
50. Linkage is the physical occurrence or "linkage" of genes on the same chromosome; crossing-over is the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis I. Which process creates the most genetic variability ________________________?
51. Match the so-called Mendel’s Laws of Genetics: ____ 1) segregation, ____ 2) random assortment, ____ 3) recombination, and ____ 4) dominance with the following (place letters in blanks): (A) prophase I ( B) metaphase I (C) anaphase I (D) the expression of one gene over another.
52. What term is applied to a form of gene interaction whereby one modifies the phenotypic expression of another, non-allelic gene __________________________?
53. What is the term for more than one gene, two or more and their alleles, affecting the same character ______________________________?
54. What is the term for the capacity of a single gene to affect many characteristics___________
55. What is the F2 phenotypic ratio of the following cross: TT X tt (A) 1 : 2 : 1 (B) 3 : 1 (C) 1 : 1 (D) 1 : 0 (E) 9 : 3 : 3 : 1
56. What is the F2 phenotypic ratio of the following cross: RRYY X rryy (A) 1 : 2 : 1 (B) 6 : 2 (C) 9 : 3 : 3 : 1 (D) 3 : 1 (E) 1 : 1
57. Know how to derive the phenotypic and genotypic ratios of monohybrid, dihybrid, incomplete dominance, and linkage crosses.
58. Understand the following: scientific names, binomial system of nomenclature (Linnaeus, 1753), categories of classification (Kingdom, Division [Phylum], Class, Order, Family, Genus, species), common names, Theophrastus (ca. 300 B.C.) early (artificial) system of classification, and the difference between artificial (convenient), natural, and phylogenetic systems of classification.