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1. The final segment of this General Botany class includes a survey of the major groups of plants and plant-like (those traditionally studied in botany classes) organisms: These are the algae (Protista), fungi (Mycota and Protista), bryophytes (Plantae), ferns (Plantae), gymnosperms (Plantae), and angiosperms (Plantae). The Cyanobacteria, here included with the algae, are in the kingdom Prokaryota. Name the division of algae that has characters most like those of higher plants ______________________________.

2. List the seven divisions (phyla) of algae and add the common name beside each division name.

__________________________, _________________________, ________________________,

__________________________, _________________________, ________________________,


3. What is a general term for the undifferentiated body of a non-vascular plant or alga ________?

4. In learning about the divisions of algae, and all the plant divisions as well, consider features of habitat, habit (morphological appearance), and reproduction (life cycles). List a specific fresh water __________________________, salt water __________________________, and terrestrial ____________________________ habitat where one would expect to find one or more species of algae.

5. Plant forms of algae include unicellular, filamentous, and colonial. The largest of all algae, certain brown algae, are called ______________. In one or a few words, indicate what is meant by unicellular _____________________________; filamentous __________________________;

and colonial _____________________________.

6. Algae, fungi, and plants undergo asexual or sexual reproduction, or both. Give an example of asexual reproduction in algae _________________________________.

7. In sexual reproduction, production of gametes, fusion of gametes (fertilization), and meiosis are always involved, i.e., part of the life cycle. What is the biological process that results in the production of gametes _______________________? What is the biological process that results in the formation of a zygote _________________________?

8. Two types of sexual reproduction that are recognized among the algae are isogamy and oogamy. Which type is characterized by the fusion of gametes of the same size _____________?

Which type is characterized by the fusion of a larger, non-motile gamete with a smaller, motile gamete _______________?

9. What is the term for a thick-walled resting zygote that results from isogamy ______________?

10. What is the term for a thick-walled resting zygote that results from oogamy _____________?

11. Review the summary information, presented in class, about each of the seven divisions of algae. Here are some practice questions regarding the algae:

____The kind of algae that produce glass cell walls are (A) green algae (B) kelps (C) red algae

(D) diatoms (E) blue-green algae

____One is most likely to find members of Phaeophyta in (A) terrestrial habitats (B) lakes (C) dessert springs (D) warm seas (E) cold seas

____Agar, the important growth medium for microorganisms, is extracted from (A) Rhodophyta

(B) Chlorophyta (C) Phaeophyta (D) Chrysophyta (E) Cyanobacteria

____Which pigment is responsible for the rose color of red algae (A) chlorophyll (B) fucoxanthin

(C) phycoerythrin (D) phycocyanin (E) algin

Name a filamentous, isogamous, green algal genus that produces zoospores with four flagella


Are Fucus "plants" haploid or diploid _____________________?

Function of the heterocysts in Nostoc has been associated with ___________________________.

12. The major vegetative stage in the life cycle of the Plasmodial Slime Molds (Myxomycota) is the __________________________.

13. The filamentous body of "true fungi" is known as the ______________________; individual filaments are known as _____________________.

14. Fungal cell walls are composed of _______________________.

15. Rhizoids and haustoria are special absorptive branches of fungal mycelia. Rhizoids are produced by saprophytic fungi, and haustoria are produced by __________________fungi.

16. According to modern ribosomal RNA sequence data, fungi are most closely related to: animals; plants (circle correct answer)

17. Divisions of true fungi include Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Deuteromycota, and Basidiomyctoa. Match the following by writing the associated division name in the blank:

A._______________ Rhizopus (Black Mold of Bread); B.________________ Sac Fungi;

C._______________ ascospores in asci; D. __________________ Brewer’s or Baker’s Yeast;

E._______________ penicillin; F. _________________ basidiospores on basidia; G.__________________ shelf fungi, mushrooms, puffballs; __________________H. Puccinia graminis (wheat rust).

18. What are the division names for the non-vascular land plants (the bryophytes), liverworts _______________________ and mosses _______________________?

19. Alternation of generations is always taken into account in understanding the life cycles of plants. Which generation is characterized by being diploid and producing spores _______________________? Which generation is characterized by being haploid and producing gametes ______________________?

20. In bryophytes (and vascular plant groups as well) what is the term for female sex organs _________________________, and what is the term for male sex organs __________________?

21. What is the dominant generation in the life cycle of bryophytes ______________________?

22. Know the generalized life cycle of Hepatophyta and Bryophyta. In liverworts, spores germinate to form directly the gametophyte stage. In mosses, spores germinate directly to form the ____________________ stage (prostrate, filamentous, branched), which then gives rise to the erect "leafy" gametophyte stage.

23. In bryophytes, biflagellate sperm swim down the neck canal of archegonia to reach the egg. A fertilized egg, or zygote, then develops into the sporophyte generation. In mosses, circle the part of the sporophyte in which spores are formed: foot, seta, capsule, operculum.

24. Is the calyptra comprised of gametophytic or sporophytic tissue? Circle the answer.

25. Write the division name for the ferns ________________________.

26. Are the ferns vascular plants or non-vascular plants? Circle the answer.

27. Know the generalized life cycle of the ferns. Are fern fronds (leaves) part of the gametophyte or sporophyte generation ? Circle the answer.

28. Circinate vernation or fiddleheads is a reference to young or old fern leaves? Circle.

29. Typically do ferns produce growth from a cambium? Yes or No. Circle.

30. What is the formal term for the dorsiventral heart-shaped gametophyte of ferns? _______________________.

31. On fern gametophytes, which is produced closest to the apical sinus (notch)? Archegonia or Antheridia. Circle.

32. Following fusion of a multiflagellate sperm and egg, a fern zygote develops into juvenile sporophyte. A juvenile sporophyte consists of a foot, stem, root, and first leaf. During the first stages of its growth, a fern juvenile sporophyte remains attached to the ___________________.

33. Typically fern sporangia are produced in sori on mature fronds (leaves). In the fern life cycle, what important structures are produced through meiosis in sporangia ________________?

34. A fern sorus, located on the underside of a leaf, may be covered by a thin flap of tissue known as an _______________________.

35. Fern sporangia have a specific structure that is associated with spore dissemination. A stalk, annulus, lateral wall cells, and lip cells are important structures of the fern ________________.

36. A fern spore germinates directly to form a _______________________.

37. What is the dominant stage in the life cycle of ferns ______________________?

38. Which of the following groups are seed plants? Angiosperms; gymnosperms. Circle.

39. Which is true of seed plants? They are vascular or non-vascular plants. Circle.

40. Which is true of seed plants? They have a cambium or they do not have a cambium. Circle.

41. What is the dominant generation in all vascular plants and in all seed plants? gametophyte or sporophyte. Circle.

42. The gymnosperm divisions include Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, Ginkgophyta, and Coniferophyta. Which division has the most species and is most widely distributed in the world? Circle.

43. Gymnosperms and angiosperms are heterosporous, i.e., they produce different kinds of spores, microspores and megaspores. Microspores develop into pollen grains which contain the male gametophytes. Megaspores give rise to female gametophytes. Female gametophytes are formed in ovules, which mature to form seeds. A mature ovule, or seed, contains an embryo. When a seed germinates, the embryo grows to form ___________________________________.

44. In mature gymnosperm sporophytes, microsporangia develop in microstrobili. What is produced in microsporangia? _________________________.

45. In mature gymnosperm sporophytes, megasporangia develop in ovules of megastrobili. What is produced in megasporangia? _________________________.

46. Know the pine life cycle. One of the common pine species in the vicinity of Alpine is Pinus cembroides (Mexican Pinyon Pine). In P. cembroides, or any other pine, 2-5 archegonia are produced in the female gametophyte (in the ovule) near the pollen chamber. Germinating pollen grains develop pollen tubes that convey male gametes (here called sperm nuclei) to the archegonia. What is the biological term for a fertilized egg? ______________________.

47. The pine life cycle requires about 14-16 months to be completed. In pine, at what time of the year does pollination occur? Spring, Summer, Fall, or Winter. Circle.

48. The flowering plants are also known as the angiosperms. What is the division name for the flowering plants? ______________________.

49. At least two very special structures are produced by flowering plants. These are flowers, and later, fruits. The four floral organs are, from outside to inside: calyx (comprised of sepals), corolla (comprised of petals), stamens, and pistil. Each stamen consists of a filament and anthers. Pollen is produced in the ___________________. Each pistil consists of a stigma, style, and ovary. Ovules are produced in the ____________________.

50. Pollination involves the transfer of pollen from one place to another. In angiosperms, pollen is transferred from anthers to stigma. Cross-pollination may occur between individual plants in a population. How is pollen transported? ______________________________________. What is one important function of the flower corolla? ______________________________________.

51. Know the angiosperm life cycle. Double fertilization is characteristic of the angiosperm life cycle. Double fertilization consists of the fusion of one sperm nucleus with the egg nucleus, forming the zygote, and the fusion of the other sperm nucleus with the two polar nuclei, resulting in the development of the endosperm. Double fertilization occurs in the female gametophyte (also known in angiosperms as the embryo sac). How do the sperm nuclei (male gametes) get to the embryo sac? _______________________________________________________________.

52. Know the following: A pistil may be simple or compound. An ovary may be superior or inferior. A flower may be regular (actinomorphic; radially symmetrical) or irregular (zygomorphic; bilaterally symmetrical). Flowers may be complete or incomplete. Flowers may be bisexual (and thus perfect), or unisexual (and thus imperfect). Male flowers are called staminate, and female flowers are pistillate. In different angiosperm species, male flowers and female flowers may be located on the same plant, and thus be monoecious, or the unisexual flowers may be located on separate individuals, and thus be dioecious. Must dioecious species undergo cross-pollination? Yes or No. Circle.

53. In many flowering plant species, a fruit develops from a maturing ovary only, or in other species, a fruit may develop from the ovary and accessory parts of the flower. Seeds are located in fruits. As seeds develop, so do the fruits. How are seeds distributed? ___________________________________________________________________________.

54. One basic premise of organic evolution (biological evolution) is that populations have undergone genetic changes over time, and that these changes have been directed by evolutionary processes. In attempting to explain the basics of evolution, the following famous concepts are often compared: In 1809 Jean Lamarck wrote that evolution might be based upon the inheritance of acquired characters (modifications that occur during the life of an organism result in inheritance by progeny); that with a change in environment there would be a change in needs or wants of the organisms; that further development of new organs was based upon use and disuse; and that all organisms were tending toward perfection. Among examples cited by Lamarck were the giraffe and the blind cave salamander.

In 1859 Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species, based upon many years of work following his famous voyage as naturalist on the HMS Beagle. Basic Darwinian principles include: variation (genetic variation exists among all individuals of a population); struggle for existence (actually struggle for reproduction, and survival of genes from generation to generation); and natural selection (environmental selection for those variants most likely to survive best, and against those variations not competing so well).

The essence of the Lamarckian concept is inheritance of acquired characters; the essence of Darwinian evolution is natural selection. Modern study has thoroughly documented the role of natural selection in evolution.

Read in your text, Chapter 12, The Process of Evolution, page 235.

____ The evolutionary concept attributed to Charles Darwin is (A) inheritance of acquired characters (B) alternation of generations (C) natural selection (D) meiosis (E) cross- pollination

During the five-year voyage of HMS Beagle, one particular site stands out as being the most influential in stimulating the concept of natural selection by Darwin. Name this site, an archipelago off the northwest coast of South America. _______________________________.

55. Read chapters 32 (page 773) and 33 (page 796), as assigned at the beginning of the semester.

What is an ecosystem?___________________________________________________________.

Apine is in what biome? ______________________________________.

What is ecological succession?____________________________________________________.